Outsourcing is too often conflated with "offshoring". Outsourcing's philosophical definition does not stipulate the export of gainful employment to overseas locales. That association arrived much later. Possibly by design, or through opportunism, or perhaps due to one company's fear they might lose out to a competitor in an unregulated market. This long article defines "outsourcing". It also describes how this phenomenon grew from embryo to a multi-billion dollar industry.